Pelaksanaan land reform di India berdasarkan laporan yang dibuat tahun 1966

Pasca perang dunia kedua, land reform dilaksanakan hampir di semua negara-negara bekas jajahan kolonial, dimana timeline waktunya satu sama lain tidak jauh berbeda yaitu sekitar tahun 60 an sampai 66 an. Nah, berikut adalah ulasan singkat pelaksanaan di negara India berdasarkan hasil laporan Panitia Nasional landreform di India tahun 1966.

PELAKSANAAN PEMBATASAN LUAS KEPEMILIKAN HAK ATAS TANAH DI INDIA

No. Negara bagian Peraturan Keterangan
1. Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings Act, 1961 a family holding varies from 6 to 72 acres

The ceiling law was brought into force with effect from June 1, 1961. There is no provision dealing with the problem of transfers.

The law has thus only a limited significance.

2. Assam the ceiling Act (batasan sewa)-sebagian besar tanah adalah milik negara dan disewakan.

 

The land reform laws are not applicable to the tribal areas.

which fixed the time limit on resumption no ejectments could take place after February. 1963. There is no provision, however, for the regulation of voluntary surrenders or for converting tenants of non- resumable lands into owners.

Legislation has been enacted for fixation of ceiling on future acquisition as well as existing holdings at 50 acres.

 

3. Bihar the Ceiling Act of 1961

Sebagian besar tanah milik negara dan disewakan.

The ceiling is 20 standard acres (one standard acre varies from 1 to 3 acres).
4. Gujarat Ceiling Act (batas sewa)

Bombay Tenancy Act.

the maximum rent varies from 2 to 5 times the assessment

Ceiling on existing holding and future acquisition has been fixed at 19 to 132 acres.

 

5. Kerala The Kerala Land Reforms Act

(masalah batas sewa lahan)

(5) a ceiling at 12 standard acres (15 to 36 ordinary acres).

the determination of fair rents and other matters are taking too much time.

6. Madhya Pradesh the Madhya Pradesh Land Revenue Code 1959 ceiling on land holdings at 25 standard acres (25 to 75 ordinary acres). The landholders were permitted to dispose of the surplus land s within a period of two years from the commencement of the law to persons in prescribed categories. The State Government can acquire thereafter any surplus land left with the landholder The period of two years expired on November 15. 1963.
7. Madras the Madras Cultivating Tenants Protection Act, 1955 and the Fair Rent Act 30 standard acres (24 to 120 ordinary acres). The ceiling legislation was brought into force from 2nd October, 1962.

Permasalahannya tidak ada catatan tertulis mengenai sewa tanah, semua dilakukan secara lisan.

8. Maharashtra   The landlords were permitted to resume one-half the area leased subject to a maximum of 3 family holdings.

Ceiling on existing holdings has been fixed at 18 to 126 acres. Ceiling on future acquisition has been fixed at 2/3rd of the ceiling on existing holdings.

 

9. Mysore The Mysore Land Reforms Act

The Act as amended was brought into force on 2nd October 1965

 

ceilings on existing holdings at 27 standard acres and on future acquisition at 18 standard acres.

not much surplus area would be available for redistribution.

 

 

10. Orissa The Orissa Land Reforms Act ceiling at 20 standard acres (one standard acre varies from 1 to 4 acres according to class of land).

The committee concluded that there should be no further extension of the time limit for resumption of tenanted land.

11. Punjab Land Tenures Act and in Pepsu area under the Pepsu Tenancy and Agricultural Land Act. In Pepsu ceiling is 30 standard acres. In the Punjab area there is no ceiling on ownership.

The provisions with regard to maximum rent also do not appear to be effective in many cases and the rent exceeding the level provided in the law and going up to half of the gross produce are quite common. Receipts for rents are not given inspite of provisions in the law.

12. Rajasthan the Rajasthan Tenancy Act ceilings on land holdings at 30 standard acres, which varies from 22 to 336 ordinary acres.

Much headway has not been made in implementing ceiling.

 

13. Uttar Pradesh The U.P. Zamindari Abolition and Land Reforms Act The ceiling has been imposed at 40 acres of fair quality land. 8.052 persons are reported to be holding ; land above the ceiling. About 2.23 lakh acres have so far been declared surplus out of which l. 57 lakh acres have been taken possession of and 96618 acres distributed.
14. West Bengal the West Bengal Estates Acquisition Act.

the Land Reforms Act

Provision has been made for the imposition of ceiling on existing and future acquisition at 25 acres.

 

15. Himachal Pradesh The Himachal Pradesh Abolition of Big Landed Estates and Land Reforms Act of 1954 a limited right of resumption to land owners for personal cultivation of one-fourth of the leased area not exceeding 5 acres, ceilings on land holdings at 30 acres in District Chamba and an area assessed to Rs.125 in other districts.

The provisions of section 15 for bringing tenants into direct relation with the State and of Chapter VIII for ceilings on holdings had not been enforced.

16. Goa

 

Saran panitia:

(1) Pengaturan administratif untuk penegakan dan pengawasan seringkali tidak memadai dan opini publik belum cukup dibangun untuk mempercepat laju reformasi.

(2) Catatan penyewa yang penting untuk pelaksanaan reformasi tanah yang efektif tidak ada di beberapa negara dan seringkali tidak lengkap dan ketinggalan zaman bahkan jika ada.

(3) Kondisi ekonomi penyewa, meskipun telah diberikan hak tetap, masih lemah. Mereka harus memiliki hak untuk melakukan perbaikan dan mendapatkan kredit pertanian tepat waktu dari koperasi dan instansi pemerintah untuk melakukan perbaikan.

(4) Di beberapa negara, seperti kawasan Andhra, Assam, Bihar, Madras dan West Bengal, ketentuan yang ada untuk jaminan kepemilikan bersifat sementara dan langkah-langkah komprehensif untuk membawa penyewa dan berbagi petani ke dalam hubungan langsung dengan Negara belum diadopsi.

(5) Kebanyakan pengusiran berbentuk penyerahan diri secara sukarela. Beberapa negara belum menerima saran yang dibuat dalam rencana dalam hal ini. Di masa depan penyerahan tidak diizinkan kecuali kepada Pemerintah.

(6) Hak untuk memulai kembali memperluas cakupan pengusiran. Mengingat periode yang telah berlalu, seharusnya tidak ada lagi hak untuk melanjutkan.

(7) Di daerah Andhra, Jammu & Kashmir, Madras. Punjab dan Benggala Barat, harga sewa belum diturunkan menjadi 1⁄4 dari hasil kotor atau kurang. Selain sewa produk belum dihapuskan dan diganti dengan sewa tunai tetap di ini dan beberapa negara lainnya. Hal ini diperlukan agar ketidakpastian yang timbul dari fluktuasi tahunan harga sewa dapat dihilangkan dan penggarap dijamin akan mendapatkan keuntungan penuh dari investasinya.

sumber bacaan: Implementation of
Land Reforms, A Review by the Land Reforms Implementation Committee of the National Development Council Government of India Planning Commission New Delhi August, 1966

Bagaimana dengan di Indonesia?

next, kita cicil bahasnya ya.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

CAPTCHA Image

*